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龙柏知识

发布日期:2018-08-08 作者: 点击:

龙柏(拉丁学名:Sabina chinensis (L.) Ant. cv. Kaizuca),又名刺柏、红心柏、珍珠柏等,是圆柏(桧树)的栽培变种,龙柏长到一定高度,枝条螺旋盘曲向上生长,好像盘龙姿态,故名“龙柏”。
柏科圆柏属乔木,高达21米,胸径达3.5米;树皮深灰色,纵裂,成条片开裂;幼树的枝条通常斜上伸展,形成尖塔形树冠,老则下部大枝平展,形成广圆形的树冠,树皮灰褐色,纵裂,裂成不规则的薄片脱落;小枝通常直或稍成弧状弯曲,生鳞叶的小枝近圆柱形或近四棱形。常用于园林绿化,如街道绿化、小区绿化、公路绿化等。
主要产于长江流域、淮河流域,经过多年的引种,在中国山东、河南、河北等地也有龙柏的栽培。
形态特征
是圆柏的人工栽培变种。树冠圆柱状或柱状塔形;枝条向上直展,常有扭转上升之势,小枝密、在枝端成几相等长之密簇;鳞叶排列紧密,幼嫩时淡黄绿色,后呈翠绿色;球果蓝色,微被白粉。 [1] 
高可达8米,树干挺直,树形呈狭圆柱形,小枝扭曲上伸,故而得名。小枝密集,叶密生,全为鳞叶,幼叶淡黄绿色,老后为翠绿色。球果蓝绿色,果面略具白粉。龙柏树形除自然生长成圆锥形外,也有的将其攀揉盘扎成龙、马、狮、象等动物形象,也有的修剪成圆球形、鼓形、半球形,单值或列杆、群植于庭园,更有的栽址成绿篱,经整形修剪成平直的圆脊形,可表现其低矮、丰满、细致、精细。龙柏侧枝扭曲螺旋状抱干而生,别具一格,观赏价值很高,中国各地广为栽培。

(YUANZHONG)QIAOMU,GAODA20MI,XIONGJINGDA3.5MI;SHUPISHENHUISE,ZONGLIE,CHENGTIAOPIANKAILIE;YOUSHUDEZHITIAOTONGCHANGXIESHANGSHENZHAN,XINGCHENGJIANTAXINGSHUGUAN,LAOZEXIABUDAZHIPINGZHAN,XINGCHENGGUANGYUANXINGDESHUGUAN;SHUPIHUIHESE,ZONGLIE,LIECHENGBUGUIZEDEBOPIANTUOLUO;XIAOZHITONGCHANGZHIHUOSHAOCHENGHUZHUANGWANQU,SHENGLINYEDEXIAOZHIJINYUANZHUXINGHUOJINSILENGXING,JING1-1.2HAOMI。YEERXING,JICIYEJILINYE;CIYESHENGYUYOUSHUZHISHANG,LAOLINGSHUZEQUANWEILINYE,ZHUANGLINGSHUJIANYOUCIYEYULINYE;SHENGYUYINIANSHENGXIAOZHIDEYIHUIFENZHIDELINYESANYELUNSHENG,ZHI SHENERJINMI,JINPIZHENXING,XIANDUANWEIJIANJIAN,ZHANG2.5-5HAOMI,BEIMIANJINZHONGBUYOUTUOYUANXINGWEIAODEXIANTI;CIYESANYEJIAOHULUNSHENG,XIEZHAN,SHUSONG,PIZHENXING,XIANDUANJIANJIAN,ZHANG6-12HAOMI,SHANGMIANWEIAO,YOULIANGTIAOBAIFENDAI。CIXIONGYIZHU,XITONGZHU,XIONGQIUHUAHUANGSE,TUOYUANXING,ZHANG2.5-3.5HAOMI,XIONGRUI5-7DUI,CHANGYOU3-4HUAYAO。QIUGUOJINYUANQIUXING,JING6-8HAOMI,LIANGNIANCHENGSHU,SHUSHIANHESE,BEIBAIFENHUOBAIFENTUOLUO,YOU1-4LIZHONGZI;ZHONGZILUANYUANXING,BIAN,DINGDUANDUN,YOULENGJIJISHAOSHUSHUZHICAO;ZIYE2MEI,CHUTU,TIAOXING,ZHANG1.3-1.5LIMI,KUANYUE1HAOMI,XIANDUANRUIJIAN,XIAMIANYOULIANGTIAOBAISEQIKONGDAI,SHANGMIANZEBUMINGXIAN。 [2] 

SHENGZHANGHUANJING

XIYANG,SHAONAIYIN。XIWENNUAN、SHIRUNHUANJING,KANGHAN。KANGGANHAN,JIJISHUI,PAISHUIBULIANGSHIYICHANSHENGLUOYEHUOSHENGZHANGBULIANG。SHISHENGYUGANZAO、FEIWO、SHENHOUDETURANG,DUITURANGSUANJIANDUSHIYINGXINGQIANG,JIAONAIYANJIAN。DUIYANGHUALIUHELVKANGXINGQIANG,DANDUIYANCHENDEKANGXINGJIAOCHA。 [2] 

FENBUFANWEI

LONGBOCHANYUZHONGGUONEIMENGGUWULASHAN、HEBEI、SHANXI、SHANDONG、JIANGSU、ZHEJIANG、FUJIAN、ANHUI、JIANGXI、HENAN、SHANXINANBU、GANSUNANBU、SICHUAN、HUBEIXIBU、HUNAN、GUIZHOU、GUANGDONG、GUANGXIBEIBUJIYUNNANDENGDI。SHENGYUZHONGXINGTU、GAIZHITUJIWEISUANXINGTUSHANG,GEDIYIDUOZAIPEI,XIZANGYEYOUZAIPEI。CHAOXIAN、RIBENYEYOUFENBU。 [2]   [4] 

FANZHIFANGFA

JIAJIE

JIAJIECHANGYONG2NIANSHENG(1NIANSHENGZHUANGMIAOYIKE)CEBOHUOYUANBOZUOZHENMU,JIESUIXUANZESHENGZHANGJIANZHUANGDEMUSHUCEZHIDINGSHAO,ZHANG10-15LIMI。LUDIJIAJIEYU3YUESHANGXUNJINXING,SHINEIJIAJIEZEKETIQIANZHI1-2YUE,DANJIEHOUXUJIAZHIBAONUAN,3YUEZHONGXIAXUNZAIYIZAIPUDI,JIAJIEFANGFACAIYONGFUJIE,JIESUIJIANQUXIABANBUZHILINYE,FUJIEYUZHENMUGENJINGBU,ZHENMUZHIYEQUANBUBAOLIU,JIEHOUYONGTUJINJIESUIBUHUOYONGSULIAOBOMOFUGAIYUCHUANGMIAN,SHIBAOCHIJIAOGAODEKONGQISHIDU。CHENGHUOHOUKESHIBOFEI,BINGXIUQUZHENMUDINGSHAO,DIERNIANCHUNJIANGZHENMUSHANGBUQIJIEKOUJIANCHU。 [5] 

QIANCHA

QIANCHAFANZHIYOUYINGZHI(XIUMIANZHI)HEBANSHUZHIQIANCHALIANGZHONG。XIUMIANZHIQIANCHAYOUYOUCHUNCHAHECHUDONGCHAZHIFEN。CHUNCHAYU2YUEXIAXUNZHI3YUEZHONGXUNJINXING,CHUDONGCHAYU11YUESHANGZHONGXUNJINXING。CHAHOUYONGBOMOFUGAI,BAOWEN、BAOSHI,KECUJINYUHEHETIZAOSHENGGEN。BANSHUZHIQIANCHAZAI8YUEZHONGXUNZHI9YUESHANGXUNJINXING。CHASUIXUANYONGCEZHIDINGSHAO,ZHANG15LIMIZUOYOU,JIANCHUXIABUXIAOZHIJILINYE,CHARUTUZHONG5-6LIMI,ZHUXINGJUKECAIYONG5LIMI×12LIMI,CHAHOUXIANSHI,CHONGFENJIAOSHUI,DAPENGZHEYIN,YIHOUJINGCHANGPENSHUI,BAOCHIMIAOCHUANGSHIRUN,DONGJIGANZAOSHIZAIZHONGWUYIXUPENSHUI。QIANCHACHUQIJIYANGGUANGZHISHE,XUQUANRIBIYIN,DAIYUHEHOUZAOWANZHUJIANZENGJIAGUANGZHAO,LONGBOFAGENMAN,YIBANXU6-8GEYUEZUOYOU,GENSHUSHAO,YILIUCHUANG1NIAN,DISANNIANCHUNYIZAI。ZAIPEIYANGQIXULIYINGAN,ZHUYIXIUJIAN、ZHAIXIN、ZHAZHI,SHIMIAOMUZHANGDETINGZHI、JINMI,RUOPEIYANGLONGBOQIU,KEQUDINGZHAIXIN,YINIANXING3-4CI,ZHUBUYANGCHENG,LONGBOYIZHIZAI2YUEZHONGXUNZHI3YUEXIAXUNHUO11YUESHANGXUNZHI12YUESHANGXUNJINXING,DAINIQIUYIZHI。 [5] 

栽培技术
柏苗管理

DAPENGNEIQIWENZAI14ZHI20℃,SHIDUZAI50ZHI70%JIAOWEILIXIANG。ZAIHAOBOMIAODEDAQINEIYAOJIANXIAOGONGPENG,YEJIAOPENGNEIPENG。YIZHUZIWEIGUJIA,ZHAOSHANGWUDIMOSIZHOUYAZHUMO,ZHEIYANGKEMINGXIANTIGAOYOUMIAOSHENGZHANGHUANJINGWENSHIDU,DUICHENGHUOSHIFENYOULI。JIAJIEHOUZHENMUYAOFENCIXIUJIAN,MIAOZIZHIHAOHOU,XIANJIAOSHUI,DIYICIJIANZHENMUYAOJIANQUZHENMUZONGGAOSANFENZHIYI(CONGJIAJIECHUZHISHAODING),DIERCIJIANQUYILIUGAODUDEYIBAN,ZHEISHILONGBOYICHENGHUO,XINSHAOZHANGDAO3ZHI5LIMI,DISANCILONGBOXINSHAOZHANGDAO12ZHI16LIMI,ZAIJIAJIECHUSHANGLIU0.8ZHI1LIMI,JIANDIAOSHANGBU,SHIJIANDAYUEZAIJIAJIEHOU45TIANZUOYOU。ZAISHENGZHANGYIDUANSHIJIANHOUWEIZENGJIAGUANGZHAOKEJIANGXIAOGONGPENGCHEDIAO,JISHIQINGCHUZACAO。 [5] 

注意事项:
1.
在接穗紧张时可将长条枝剪成两段用。

2.
嫁接时,砧木过粗,接穗细时,可将接穗一边靠对准形成层绑好即可。

3.
假植后,浇第一次水,千万不能采用撒水和喷水,这是以往成活率较低的主要原因。

4.
砧木三段剪也叫三次剪,是提高成活率的有效措施,不能随意更改。

5.
保证大棚的光照和温湿度,晴天上午太阳出来拉苫,下午太阳落前落苫,雪天不要落苫,便于积雪清理。

6.
提高温湿度可用双层棚门,一层是原有的,二层是用苫或棉被制成。 [5] 

ZHENGXINGXIUJIAN

YI、YUANZHUXING:LONGBOZHUGANMINGXIAN,ZHUZHISHUMUDUO,RUOZHUZHICHUZIZHUGANSHANGTONGYIBUWEI,BIXUJIANCHUYIGE,MEILUNZHILIUYIGEZHUZHI。ZHUZHIJIANYIBANJIANGE 20-30cm,BINGQIECUOLUOFENBU,GEZHUZHIYAODUANJIEBINGJIANCHENGXIAZHANGSHANGDUAN,JIANKOULUOZAIXIANGSHANGSHENGZHANGDEXIAOCEZHISHANG,YIQUEBAOYOUMEISHUXING。ZHUZHIJIANSHOURUOZHIJIZAOSHUCHUYILITOUGUANG,GEZHUZHIDEDUANJIEGONGZUO,ZAISHENGZHANGQINEIMEIDANGXINZHIZHANGDAO10-15cmSHIYIJIUDUANJIE,QUANNIANJIAN2-8CI,YIYIZHIZHISHAODETUZHANG,GEZHUZHIXIUJIANSHIYINGCONGXIAZHISHANG,ZHUJIANSUODUAN,YICUJINYUANZHUXINGDEXINGCHENG。ZHUYIKONGZHIZHUGANDINGDUANJINGZHENGZHI,YIMIANZAOCHENGFENCHASHUXING。DUIDAZHIDEXIUJIANZHUYAOZAIXIUMIANQIJINXING,YIMIANSHUYEWAILIU。 [5] 

ER、FEIYUEXING:YIBANJUNYUNBAOLIUSHAOLIANGZHUZHI、CEZHI,BINGRANGQITUCHUSHENGZHANG,QIYUDEZHU、CEZHIYILVDUANJIE。QUANSHUXINSHAOZAISHENGZHANGQIJINXING6-8CILEISIDUANJIEDEQUSHAOXIUJIAN,BINGSHITUCHUSHUGUANDEZHU、CEZHIZHANGDUBAOCHIZAISHUGUANZHIJINGDE11.5BEI,YIXINGCHENGJULONGFEIYUECHUSHUGUANDEZISHI。 [5] 

SAN、RENGONGSHIZHENGXING:LONGBOSHUXINGCHUZIRANSHENGZHANGCHENGTAXINGWAI,CHANGGENJUSHEJIYITU,CHUANGZAOCHUGEZHONGGEYANGDEXINGTI,DANYINGZHUYISHUMUDEXINGTIYAOYUSIZHOUYUANJINGXIEDIAO,XIANTIAOBUYIGUOYUFANSUO,YILUNKUOXIANMINGJIANLIANWEIJIA。ZHENGXINGDEJUTIZUOFASHIXIUJIANZHEDEJISHUERDING,YECHANGJIEZHUYUZONGSHENGHUOQIANSI,SHIXIANZUOCHENG LUNKUOYANGSHIJINXINGZHENGXINGXIUJIAN。JIANGQIPANROUPANZHACHENGLONG、MA、SHI、LU、XIANGDENGDONGWUXINGXIANG。 [5] 

FEISHUIGUANLI

LONGBOXIHUANDAFEIDASHUI,ZAIZHICHENGHUOHOU,JIEHEGUANGAI,DIYINIANZHUIFEI2ZHI3CI,MEICIMEIMUZHUISHINIAOSU15kg,RUQIUHOUTINGZHISHIFEI。DIERNIANZAOCHUN,JIEHEJIAOGUANFANQINGSHUI,TIAOGOUSHIZHUISHIYICIHANDANLIANGSHAOGAODEFUHEFEI,MEIMU40kg。YINLONGBOGENXIQIANQIESHUIPINGGENDUO,YINGSUIKAIGOUSUISHIFEISUIMAITU,JINLIANGBIMIANSHANGGEN。XIAJIZAIZHUISHI2ZHI3CINIAOSU,MEICIMEIMU25kg。 [5] 

BINGCHONGHAIFANGZHI

LONGBOBINGHAIFASHENGJIAOSHAO,CHANGJIANDECHUSHANGSHULICHIXINGBINGYIWAI,QIANCHAMIAOCHUANGJIZHIBUGANJINGHUOZHONGFUSHIYONGSHI,YIFASHENGZIWENYUBING,KEGENJUQIANSHUFANGFAFANGZHI。CHONGHAICHANGJIANDEYOUBUDAIE,YINGZAI6YUESHANGXUNYOUCHONGSHANGWEIKUOSANSHIPENBU1000BEI98%JINGTIDIBAICHONGYIZHIZHI。 [5] 

LONGBOYIFASHENGHONGZHIZHU、LIKUBING、KUZHIBINGDENGBINGCHONGHAI,YAOZHUYIJINGCHANGGUANCHA,ZUODAOZAOFAXIANZAOFANGZHI。FANGZHIHONGZHIZHUKEJIAOTIPENSHI20%MANKERUYOU3000BEIYE,1.8%QIMANSURUYOU5000BEIYE,HUO15%DAQINTONGRUYOU3000BEIYE;LIKUBINGFABINGCHUQIKEYONG70%JIAJITUOBUJINKESHIXINGFENJI700ZHI800BEIYEJIAOGUAN;FANGZHIKUZHIBINGKEPENSHI50%TUIJUNTEKESHIXINGFENJIHUO70%BAIJUNQINGKESHIXINGFENJI1000BEIYE。 [5] 

ZHUYAOJIAZHI

LONGBOSHUXINGYOUMEI,ZHIYEBILVQINGCUI,GONGYUANLIBALVHUASHOUXUANMIAOMU,DUOBEIZHONGZHIYUTINGYUANZUOMEIHUAYONGTU。YINGYONGYUGONGYUAN、TINGYUAN、LVQIANGHEGAOSUGONGLUZHONGYANGGELIDAI。LONGBOYIZAICHENGHUOLVGAO,HUIFUSUDUKUAI,SHIYUANLINLVHUAZHONGSHIYONGZUIDUODEGUANMU,QIBENSHENQINGCUIYOULIANG,SHENGZHANGJIANKANGWANGSHENG,GUANSHANGJIAZHIGAO。

 

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